1500 women who had never given birth were recruited during their first and second trimesters of pregnancy from six maternity hospitals in Australia. Researchers studied data from baseline and postpartum questionnaires about pain with intercourse (dyspareunia). 98% resumed intercourse by 18 months and 24% reported dyspareunia. Women who had an emergency cesarean section, vacuum extraction, or elective cesarean had an increased risk of reporting dyspareunia at 18 months postpartum, compared to women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery with an intact perineum or unsutured tear.
McDonald EA, Gartland D, Small R, Brown SJ. Dyspareunia and childbirth: a prospective cohort study. BJOG 2015;122:672-679.