By Bryn Zolty, PT
How do men Kegel? In the literature, the phrase that was found to be most associated with stopping urine leakage was, “Shorten the penis.” This simple cueing creates the greatest displacement of the muscles that close the urethra. Other cues like “lift the bladder” were not as effective and increased pressure in the abdomen and pushed down on the pelvic floor. (1) It is important to be aware that you are not contracting other muscles in the legs, buttocks, and abdomen when isolating the pelvic muscles.
Every Kegel or pelvic floor strengthening program should be customized to each person. In the clinic, we work on endurance and quick contractions. For example, a home exercise program may include:
Some men lose large amounts of urine after prostate surgery, which can have a huge impact on normal daily activities. It may take time for kegels to make a difference in symptoms. A penis clamp may be an appropriate option to stop large leaks. The clamp places gentle pressure on the urethra to block urine loss. It may not stop all leakage but can significantly reduce it. When the clamp is removed, the release of pressure allows for normal urination. The amount of time recommended for wearing the clamp is variable between different devices. If you have any interest in a using a clamp, contact your physician or pelvic physical therapist to see if you are a good candidate.
According to the Journal of Neurourology and Urodynamics, men " found the device easy to use, felt more confident wearing the device, and had increased levels of physical activity with device in situ." They had significantly improved urinary incontinence symptoms per the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire. (2)
If you are going to have a prostatectomy or already have, ask your physician for a referral to a pelvic physical therapist. They can guide you through your pre- and post-surgical rehabilitation and reduce urinary incontinence.
(1) Stafford, R. E., Ashton‐Miller, J. A., Constantinou, C. , Coughlin, G. , Lutton, N. J. and Hodges, P. W. (2016), Pattern of activation of pelvic floor muscles in men differs with verbal instructions. Neurourol. Urodynam., 35: 457-463.
(2) Barnard, J. and Westenberg, A. M. (2015), The penile clamp: Medieval pain or makeshift gain? Neurourol. Urodynam., 34: 115-116.
By Becca Ironside, PT
Matt was a regular guy. At 36 years old, he had a successful career in IT and was newly married. Matt had been playing ice hockey from the time he was in grade school and had no intention of stopping in adulthood. Every Tuesday and Thursday night, Matt went to a local ice rink and laced up his skates to play with a men’s league. This was the release from the grind of his job and he felt like a young kid as the blade of his stick hit the puck away from the opponent’s net.
Matt always wore a mouth guard and a jock strap. They were as necessary as the shoulder pads under the jersey. Anything could happen on the ice, and Matt was taking every precaution necessary, while having the best release of adrenaline he ever felt during the workweek. Until one day when all of this hockey armor failed to protect Matt. He will never forget it, he said. How could he? One evening, as Matt was playing defense, the puck flew into the air and hit him just to the left of his groin. The trajectory of the puck was like a sharp-shooter, it got that very tender spot between his jock strap and
testicle. The pain was excruciating.
The only choice was surgery. The urologist made an incision down the seam in the middle of the scrotum and removed the damaged tissue. There was pain after the surgery, Matt said, but nothing as severe as the pain which brought him to the hospital after the puck’s errant contact with his groin. This surgical pain settled down, healing took place, and all seemed to return to normal.
It was not until three months later when Matt noticed that he was having difficulty with sex. He had developed premature ejaculation. There was also a strange sensation of fullness and tenderness in his testicles after climax. How had this happened, Matt wondered? And what could be done? Was there treatment for this?
It was Matt’s wife who found our clinic. This was not surprising, as women typically have a more visceral connection with their pelvic floors; we have periods as teenagers, we get examined internally when most men do not until later years and we often have pregnancies which put this area of our bodies in the spotlight. Matt came to Pelvic Floor physical therapy with his wife, Maria.
Maria explained that she was concerned about her husband’s premature ejaculation and discomfort after sex. Not only did Maria and Matt want to return to their very robust sex life, they also wanted to conceive a child. It was helpful to have both partners attend this initial session.
Matt returned for several physical therapy appointments by himself after that first evaluation. He learned methods to relax the muscles of his perineum. It was the scar adhesions of his testicular surgery that caused his muscles to go into spasm; this was driving the premature ejaculation and pain after intercourse he was experiencing. He learned techniques to release the scarring and relax his muscles and taught his wife how to help him. Together, this couple worked to recover Matt’s sexual and
It was nothing short of wonderful to get a letter from Matt a few months after he stopped attending PT. The letter read as follows:
“It was not easy to come to a physical therapy office and talk about erections. But I am so glad that I did it. Since then, Maria and I are able to have the kind of sex that we did before the injury. I am also back to playing hockey, but only one night a week. This is because we are expecting a baby girl in a few months and I need to be at home more to get ready for the baby.”
What was so successful about the outcome of this story, you might ask? Firstly, Matt had a traumatic injury to his groin and developed symptoms immediately thereafter, so the causation of the problem was easy to determine. Secondly, Matt was open to this type of therapy and it was readily available to him in the area in which he lived. Finally, and what is most important about this story, is that Matt and his wife Maria tackled the problem together. They both had to adjust their expectations, lifestyles and learn to overcome something which might have driven them apart. Instead, it brought them closer together.
Pelvic Floor physical therapy helped to make this happen. With a baby girl to reinforce the story! There is great power in looking at life’s problems and seeking help. It requires staring down our opponent on the ice. We need the shoulder pads and the mouth guards, but the puck might still hit us in the worst possible spot. With a team approach, we can recover. We cannot allow the fear of the puck to keep us out of the ice rink. Just like Matt and Maria, we have to keep skating.
What the research says: effectiveness of early pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment for post-prostatectomy incontinence
A prospective study by Filocamo and colleagues in 2005 investigated the effectiveness of early pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). After catheter removal, 300 men were randomized equally into either a structured PFMT group or a control group that did not receive exercise. Incontinence was assessed by the 1-hour and 24-hour pad test, as well as the ICS-Male questionnaire.
By 6 months, almost 95% of the PFMT group achieved continence as compared to 65% of the control group. The authors concluded that an early supportive rehabilitation program like PFMT significantly decreases continence recovery time.
Filocamo M, Marzi VL, Del Popolo G, Cecconi F, Marzocco M, Tosto A, Nicita G. Effectiveness of Early Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation Treatment for Post-Prostatectomy Incontinence. European Urology. 2005 Jun:48(5)734-8.
Patient: 63-year-old male who works in a lab, walks 1 mile per day for exercise.
Chief Complaint: Constant “dribbling” of urine after removal of prostate.
Patient voided every ½ hour during the day, and 2x at night. Patient used 2 pads daily, leaking 100-300 cc per day.
Past Medical History: Low back surgery, inguinal hernia repair, prostate cancer
Physical Therapy Treatment: Biofeedback to pelvic floor; bladder retraining; pelvic floor exercise; proprioceptive muscle training; postural exercises; core strengthening; home program
Results: Patient voids once per hour, and 1x at night. Patient uses 1 thin pad, leaking 3-5 cc per day after 13 visits.